JLPT N4 Grammar List
Transitive & Intransitive Verbs
I will call you later.
not very; not much
I don't eat very much meat.
to do (humble する)
I will confirm it now. (humble)
to be; to come; to go
Do you come here often?
please do (honorific)
Can I have some water, please?
to do (honorific)
Thank you for your kindness.
repeated at intervals; every
There's a train every hour.
to finish; to end
I gave my best until it finished.
(turns a sentence into a yes/no question)
Did you have a meal this morning?
I wonder if Yuko is okay.
smell; hear; taste
It smells good.
way of; method
My way of thinking
whether or not
I don’t know whether I will go or not.
I wonder if it’s cold outside.
It could be allergies.
to show signs of; to feel; to think
Please don’t be afraid.
The cat bit me suddenly.
there is (honorific ある)
Do you have any other questions?
(turns verbs into nouns)
Have you seen this?
can; be able to
I can ride a horse.
to decide on
I decided to buy a house.
It'll be a bad thing if other's find out.
I will finish making it around three o'clock.
(turns adjectives) into nouns
This table is the right height for me.
to be made to do something
My son was expelled.
to make/let somebody do something
This lovley story will move you.
I was scared, and I was sad.
only; nothing but
There are only four chairs.
It's fine isn’t it?
(not) at all
I don’t have any money at all.
I heard that; it is said that
I heard that the temperature will go down tomorrow.
look like; appear; seem
You look sleepy.
そうに / そうな
seem; look like
That watch looks expensive.
but still; and yet
It may rain tomorow and yet I'll still go to the sea.
so; so much; like that
Don't worry too much.
to want to
He wants to go to the zoo.
Just by this coldness you will die.
to suddenly begin; to suddenly appear
Tom suddenly started to cry.
just finished doing; was just doing
I was just starting to get that feeling.
just did; something just happened
I arrived here only this morning.
if; after; when
If you get sleepy, tell me.
why don't you
Why dont you study more?
do such things like
I did things like cleaning and doing the laundry.
Please keep working.
to do something for someone
I'll forgive you just this once.
something is/has been done
You have "lies" written all over your face.
to go and do
It's okay! Because I will take bento with me.
could you please
Could you close the window please?
in the process of doing
I'm thinking about what I should use the bonus for.
ておく / とく
to do something for later
I keep juice cool in the fridge (for later).
to come to; to become; to continue
That brings me to tears.
to do something for someone
Can you give me that?
there is; this is (honorific である)
This is the Kyoto Hotel.
てしまう / ちゃう
to do something (regretfully); to do something (completely)
Drinking too much alcohol makes me sleepy (unfortunatley).
I'm sorry for
I'm sorry I'm late.
I want you to; I need you to
I want you to study together with me.
to try to
I am going to try playing baseball this weekend.
even if; even though
I will go even if my parents are against it.
How about tea or something?
to get somebody to do something
I will get someone to help with this work.
I'm glad that
I'm glad that I exercised today.
if; when; and
Mother and daughter.
(changes a sentence or phrase into a noun)
I know you don't want me to come to the party.
I think; you think
I think I’ll eat.
among other things; such as
I like colors such as blue and light blue.
when; at the time
I listen to music when I take a walk.
about to; on the verge of
I am just about to go home.
without doing; don't
while; during; as
I watch TV while doing cleaning.
なくてはいけない / なくてはならない
must do; have to do
I have to go to school every day.
don't have to
You don't have to hurry.
なければいけない / なければならない
must do; have to do
I thought that I must study more.
(order somebody to do something)
to do (honorific する)
Would you like something to drink?
such as; things like
Things like my hips and back hurt (among others).
if; in case; as for
If it's you, you can do it
Chopsticks are difficult to use.
What fruit do you like best?
although in spite of; even though
Even though I said it was impossible, you're still going to do it?
in order to
It took three days in order for the letter to arrive.
のように / のような
like; similar to
Chopsticks are used like this.
If the weather is good, you can see Mt. Fuji.
in the event of
Moreover, it will be canceled in the event of rain.
only; nothing but
She does nothing but complain.
to start; to begin to
The teacher starts class.
Someone like him could never do it.
it must be; it should be
There must be a better way.
Is this necessary?
We need to talk.
to want something; to be in need of
I want you!
by; by the time
Please call by tomorrow.
like; similar to; resembling
That cloud looks like a bird.
like; similar to
easy to; likely to
Cake is easy to make.
it seems that; it appears that; it looks like
It seems that someone has come.
I think I will
I think I'll go to bed early tonight.
as; like; just like
Chopsticks are used like this.
to try to; to make sure that
I'm trying not to waste money.
to reach the point that
When I cleaned off the mud, they became like brand new!
plan to; intend to
I'm planning to go there in September.
It’s hotter than Japan.
She's girl=like (feminine).
to be able to do something
The fish can be eaten raw.
to do (by someone)
Taught by young people. (若い人達に教えた = Taught young people)
JLPT N3 Grammar List
so much… that
I don't eat very much meat.
so much… that; too…
It was too noisy, so I covered my ears.
いくら○○ても / いくら○○でも
no matter how
No matter how many times I called, he didn't respond.
more and more; continue to
The rain is getting heavier and heavier.
on one hand; on the other hand
My father is very strict with himself but very kind to others.
while; before; doing
My mother gets up while it’s still dark.
thanks to; because of
Thanks to the teacher, I passed (the exam) for university .
perhaps; likely; probably
I probably have millions of pictures on my computer right now.
half-; not yet finished
The half-eaten cake is put on the table.
hard to; difficult to
Oh, tempura soba is hard hard to throw away too.
apt to do; tend to do
If you hurry you tend to make mistakes.
instead of; in exchange for
I send an e-mail instead of sending a letter.
I had a slight cold so I took some medicine.
The two of us were left alone.
to do something completely
Anyhow, I’m tired out from working from morning till night.
being too much to finish
There are too many stars to count in the Milky Way.
even though; and yet; despite
Despite the room being small, the rent is very expensive.
くらい / ぐらい
It's around ten minutes from my house to the station.
never; by no means
Tom never laughs.
certainly (emphasises the previous word)
I’ll centainly go on a diet this year.
Don't talk in a loud voice.
How many times have I warned you…?
can; sometimes happens
Small problems can become big problems.
should (when giving advice)
You should not repeat the same mistake.
My brother had a car accident but fortunate(ly) he was only slightly injured.
there is no need to; never happens
You don’t have to worry about it.
Even children can understand it.
さえ○○ば / さえすれば / さえいれば
if only… then
If you drink your medicine you'll get better.
have no choice but
have no choice but to do it now
He left without saying anything.
can't help but feel; can't help but do
I couldn’t help feeling sorry for Tatsuya.
I was late because of a traffic accident.
very unlikely to
A mystery we’re not likely to solve.
as a result
As a result, he had been acquitted.
as much as
As much as possible, I've got to avoid speaking Japanese.
た結果 / の結果
as a result of
As a result of a long discission, as expected we decided to get a divorce.
It is a drink, but it is spicy.
That's certainly so, isn't it?
even if… is the case
Even if the storm comes, I'll go for sure.
For example, they can bend their stems, change their directions, and so forth.
as soon as; just (now)
As soon as I stood up, I felt dizzy.
I think about him everytime I read this book.
for the sake of; in order to
Cook for someone.
because of; as a result of
As a result of the fog, the train was delayed.
たらいい / といい 1
How long should I microwave this?
たらいい / といい 2
I hope it is fun.
たらいい / といい 3
it would be nice if
It'd be nice if we had curry for dinner tonight.
covered (all over)
My shoes were covered (all over) in mud.
What he says is full of contradictions.
taking the opportunity; while (you) are at it
Since I was at the post office, I bought a postcard.
what is… again?
Sorry, what is your name again?
leaving something still in use
I left the windows open and went out.
That shirt looks cheap doesn't it.
in other words; that is to say
In other words, you don't know anything right?
(please) try to; (please) look
Try looking at the picture upside down.
not until; only after… did I
I laid out the futon for the first time in my life.
てもかまわない / てもかまいません
Closing the door is no problem? (Would you mind closing the door?)
What's this flower called?
I've heard that; it seems that
Chris called and it seems like he will be a little bit late.
speaking of; when you say…
Nowadays, a blouse usually refers to a women's shirt.
Mystery means something that can not be explained.
The first time in particular, is always the most difficult.
The first time in particular, is always the most difficult.
It was cold rather than cool today.
although one says
Altough you say national holiday, there's nothing particularly special (about it).
in the way; the same as
It was exactly as Mariko said.
However, the plan didn’t turn out to be a success.
far from; nevermind
Nevermind wine, he doesn’t even drink beer.
by the way
By the way, how's your wife?
としたら / とすれば
if it were the case that; if we assume
If you were going to die tomorrow, what would you want to do?
as (i.e. in the role of)
I entered Japan as an international student.
としない / とはしない
not try to; not make an effort to
Try not to play in this room please.
He tried to avoid answering my question.
be about to
I forgot what I was about to say.
途中に / 途中で
on the way; in the middle of
It's on the way to the station.
He went traveling with his wife and children.
not necessarily so; is not always true
It's not always the case that the television broadcasts the truth.
no matter how
No matter how much she eats, she never gains weight.
can; is not impossible
It’s not that I can’t ski, it’s just I haven’t done it in a long time.
I'm on the phone right now.
ながら / いながら / ながらも
Although he always says he won't be late, he always is.
なぜなら / なぜかというと
because; the reason is
changed schools because there was no class available at my level.
as much as possible
Please come as early as possible.
なんか / なんて
things like; something
I stepped on something strange.
において / における
in; on; at; as for; regarding
An international conference was held in Japan.
over (a period); through; concerning
Tomorrow it will rain from noon through late afternoon.
にかわって / にかわり
instead of; on behalf of
Soccer has overtaken baseball in popularity.
に関する / に関して
related to; about
I read a book about living things.
Our profit went up compared to the year before.
for; considering it's
This child has a rich vocabulary for a four-year old.
Even if it’s a joke, it’s too much.
regarding; with regards to
With regards to everyone, he is very kind.
I'm sure; no doubt that
She must be Japanese.
I gave testimony about the accident.
The blue sky turned gray as the dark clouds approached.
to; for; concerning
It was a valuable experience for me.
によって / による
due to; by means of
There's no worry of a tsunami due to this earthquake.
によると / によれば
According to the weather forecast, it will be fine tomorrow.
間 / 間に 1
During my trip, please take care of my dog.
間 / 間に 2
He stretched a rope between the trees.
the more… the more/less
The more I thought about the plan, the less I liked it.
should; can; it'd be good if
What clothes do you think I should put on to go to my date tomorrow?
not only… but also; as well as
Eat the rice, not just the side dishes.
should have; it would have been better if
You should've phoned me.
I suddenly remembered the past.
By chance, I looked to my right, and there was a large tree.
to pretend; to act as if
She pretended not to hear.
must do; should do
I think Tom should eat more.
must not do; should not do
We should not talk about things like that in front of children.
べつに○○ない / べつに○○じゃない
not really; not particularly
I don’t particularly like coffee.
the more; to the extent that; so much… that
It is cold enough to freeze tonight.
is not as… as
There is nothing scarier than death.
in the middle of
In the very middle of the party, there was an earthquake.
as it is
I want to stop time (in this moment).
as if; as though
His magic is like a miracle.
He parked the car backward.
This is a collection of fairy tales suitable for elementary school students.
intended for; aimed at
It's a magazine for young girls.
hardly; rarely; seldom
She rarely gets angry.
It's possible that I might get transferred next year.
because (indicate reason or excuse)
Why don’t you come to the party?. "Because I’m busy."
used to do something; should do something
We should follow our predecessors’ teaching.
have a feeling that; think that
No, I feel as though I had been avoiding it.
in order to; so that
Take a map with you so that you don’t get lost.
there is no way that
I’m not accepting your money!
for that reason; no wonder; as you'd expect
It's started snowing! No wonder it's so cold.
it doesn't mean that; it is not the case
I did not hurt him intentionally.
must not; can't afford to
His wrong-doing must not be overlooked.
for; despite; unexpectedly
My son is big for his age.
focused on; centered on
The earth rotates on its axis.
をはじめ / をはじめとする
for example; starting with
China and other Asian countries participated in the conference.
JLPT N2 Grammar List
Would you like tea or coffee?
suddenly; all of a sudden
Someone tapped on my shoulder from behind all of a sudden.
because; now that
That didn’t matter, because I loved her.
more than; no less than
The temperature gets above 30 degrees.
at last; finally
Finally, summer vacation is starting.
いわゆるso-called; so to speak
上にas well; besides; in addition to
上はnow that; since
えないunable to; cannot
える / うるcan; is possible
お○○願うcould you please
恐れがあるthere are fears that
おまけにto make matters worse
か○○ないかのうちにright after; as soon as
かいがあるit's worth one's effort to do something
かえってon the contrary; rather; surprisingly
限りas long as; while… is the case
かと思ったら / かと思うとthen again; just when; no sooner than
かねないmight happen; might do something
かねるunable to do something
かのようas if; just like
から言うとin terms of; from the point of view of
からしてjudging from; based on
からすると / からすればjudging from; considering
からにはnow that; since; so long as
ら見るとfrom the point of view of; by the look of
逆にon the contrary
げ(giving the appearance of)
ことからfrom the fact that
ことだからit is exactly because
ことなくwithout doing something even once
ごとにeach; every; at intervals of
ことになっているto be expected to; to be scheduled to
ことにはならないjust because… doesn't mean…
際にat the time; in case of
さらにfurthermore; again; more and more
ざるを得ないcan't help doing; have no choice but
次第as soon as
次第だ / 次第でdepending on; so
上from the standpoint of
少しも○○ないnot one bit; not even a little
すなわちin other words
ずに済むget by without doing something
せいぜいat the most; at best
せめてat least; at most
そういえばcome to think of it
そうするとhaving done that
そうにないextremely unlikely to; showing no signs of
その上besides; in addition; furthermore
それともor; or else
それなのにand yet; despite this
それならthen; if that's the case
それにしてもnevertheless; even so
たあげくto end up; finally
だけあって…being the case; precisely because
だけでなくnot only… but also
だけに…being the case; precisely because
だけのことはあるno wonder; it's not surprising that
だけはto do all that one can
だけましだone should feel grateful for
た末 / の末as a conclusion of
直ちにat once; immediately
たってeven if; even though; no matter how
たまえ(order somebody to do something)
ちっとも○○ないnot at all; not in the least
っこないno chance of; … is definitely not possible
つつあるto be doing
つもりでwith the intention of doing
ていてはif one keeps doing something
てこそnow that; since
でしかないmerely; nothing but; no more than
てたまらないvery; extremely; can't help but do
てでもeven if one has to; by all means
て当然だnatural; as a matter of course
てはif; since; one after another
てはいられないcan't afford to; unable to
てばかりはいられないcan't keep doing something
ではないかlet's do something; why don't we
てはならないmust not; cannot; should not
手前before; in front of; from one's standpoint
ということはthat is to say
というふうにin such a way that
というものだsomething like…; something called…
というものでもないthere is no guarantee that…; not necessarily
どうやらit seems like; it appears that
とかI heard that…
と考えられるone can think that…
ところだったwas just about to do something
どころではないthis is not the time for…
ところに / ところへat the time
ところを見るとjudging from; seeing that
としてもassuming; even if
とっくにalready; long ago
と同時にat the same time as
ともeven if; no matter
ないことには○○ないunless you do something
ないではいられないcan't help but feel; can't help but do
なおfurthermore; still; yet (used to add more information to the )
なくはないit's not that…; can; may be
なにも○○ないno need to
にあたりat the time; on the occasion of
に応じてdepending on; in accordance with
にかかわるto relate to; to have to do with
に限ってonly; particularly when
に限らずnot just; not only… but also
に限るnothing better than; there's nothing like
に決まっているI'm sure that…
に加えてin addition to
に越したことはないit's best that; there's nothing better than
に応えてin response to
に際してon the occasion of; at the time of
に先立ちbefore; prior to
にしたらfrom the point of view of
にしても○○にしてもregardless of whether
にしろ / にせよthough; even if; whether… or
に過ぎないno more than; just; merely
に相違ないwithout a doubt; certain; sure
に沿ってalong with; in accordance with
につきdue to; because; per; each
につけboth… and…; every time something happens
に伴ってas; due to
にはin order to; for
に反してagainst; contrary to
にほかならないnothing but; none other than
に向かってtowards; to face; to head to
にもかかわらずdespite; in spite of; although
にわたってthroughout; over (a period of time)
抜きで / 抜きにしてleaving out; cutting out
抜くto do something to the end
ねばならないhave to; must
のみならずnot only; besides; as well
のも当然だit's only natural that; no wonder
のももっともだno wonder; … is only natural
ばかり 2about; approximately
ばかりにbecause; on account of
果たしてsure enough; really
はともかくwhether or not
はもとよりalso; let alone
反面on the other hand
ふうにin a way (this way/that way/what way)
ふたたびagain; once more
ぶりにfor the first time in
まいwon't; intend not to
もかまわずwithout worrying about
もっともbut then; although
ものがある(sentence-ending expression of strong judgement)
ものだからbecause; the reason is
ものではないshouldn't do something; it's impossible to do something
ものならif one can do something
やがてsoon; before long; eventually
やら○○やらsuch things as
ようがない / ようもないthere's no way to; it's impossible to
要するにthe point is
よりほかないto have no choice but
ろくに○○ないnot doing something properly
をきっかけにwith… as a start; as a result of
を契機にas a good opportunity to; as a result of
を通じて / を通してvia; through
を除いてexcept; with the exception of
をめぐってconcerning; in regard to
をもとにbased on; from
んだってI heard that
JLPT N1 Grammar List
あくまでもto the end; to the utmost degree
案の定just as one thought
あらかじめbeforehand; in advance
あってのto owe everything to
場合によってはdepending on the situation
ばそれまでだif… then it's over
べからずmust not; should not
べくin order to; should
びるseeming to be
だの○○だのand; and so forth
であれ○○であれwhether A or B
であれ / であろうとwhoever / whatever / however
でも何でもないnot in the least
でなくてなんだろうmust be; is definitely
ではあるまいかI wonder if it's not
ではあるまいしit's not like; it isn't as if
ではすまないit doesn't end with just
どうにも○○ないnot … by any means
がてらon the same occasion
が早いかas soon as
が最後once something occurs; something else happens
ごとき / ごとくlike; as if
羽目になるto end up with (something unpleasant)
ひとつto give something a try
ほどのことはないnot worth; no need to
ほうがましだI would rather
いかなるany kind of
いかんでは / いかんによってはdepending on
いまだにstill; even now
いずれにせよat any rate; in any case
じみたto look like
限りだI feel so
か否かwhether or not
可能性があるthere's a possibility
からあるas much as; as many as
かたがたwhile; for the purpose of
かたわらwhile; at the same time
嫌いがあるto have a tendency to
きってのthe most … of all
きりがないthere's no end to
極まる / 極まりないextremely
ことなしにwithout doing something
ことのないようso as not to
までもないit's not necessary to
まじきshould not; must not
ままにto do as
まみれto be covered in
めくto show signs of
もはやalready; no longer
も顧みず / を顧みずregardless of; despite
もしないでwithout even doing
ものでbecause; for that reason
ものをI wish; if only
ものと思われるto think; to suppose
ものとしてto assume; to suppose
もさることながらnot only… but also
ながらに / ながらのwhile; during
ないではおかない / ずにはおかないwill definitely; cannot not
ないではすまない / ずにはすまないmust
ないまでもeven if something isn't done
ないものかcan't we…?; can't I…?
ないものでもない(something) is not entirely impossible
何しろin any case; as you know
ならではuniquely applying to
ならいざしらずI don't know about A; but B
なりas soon as
なりに / なりのin one's own way or style
なりともeven a little; at least
に値するto be worth; to deserve
にあたらないit's not worth; there's no need to
にあってat; during; in the condition of
にひきかえin contrast to
に至るまでuntil; as far as
に至ってはas for; when it comes to
に言わせればif you ask; if one may say
にかかっているto depend on
にかたくないit's not hard to
にまつわるto be related to
にもほどがあるto have a limit; to go too far
にもましてmore than; above
に則ってin accordance with
に先駆けてto be the first
にしたってeven; even if
にしてonly; in (time span)
に即してin keeping with
にたえる / にたえないcan/can't do something
に足る / に足りるto be enough; to be worthy of
に足りないto be not worth
に照らしてin comparison with; according to
にとどまらずnot limited to
には及ばないthere's no need to
んばかりにas if; as though
んがためin order to
のみかnot only… but also
を経てthrough; after; via
をいいことにto take advantage of
を兼ねてalso for the purpose of
を機にas an opportunity to
を禁じえないcan't help but
をものともせずin defiance of
をもって 1by means of
をもって 2at the time
をおいてother than; without
を余儀なくされるto be forced to do something
折にwhen; on the occasion
およそtotally; (not) at all
さもないとotherwise; else; if not so
さぞI'm sure; I'm certain
始末だend up; in the end
そばからas soon as
それなりにas it is; in its own way
ただ○○のみだcan do nothing but
ためしがない(something) is never the case
たりとも(not) even; (not) any
たところでeven if one does something
てかなわないcan't stand; unable to
てもどうにもならないit's no use
ても始まらないit's no use
ても差し支えないcan; it's okay if
ってばI said; I told you to
てやまないalways; never stop
とあればif; if it's the case that
とばかりにas if; as though
といえどもeven; even if
というかor; or more precisely
というか○○というか(I'm not sure if it's) A or B
というところだ / といったところだapproximately; about
というものduring a period of time
というわけではないit's not that; it doesn't mean that
といわずnot just; both
ときたらwhen it comes to; concerning
ところからfrom the fact that
とみられるto be regarded as; to be expected to
とみるやat the sight of; upon seeing
ともなくto do something without thinking about it
ともなると / ともなればwhen; once (something happens)
ともすればapt to; prone to
とっさにat once; right away
としたって / としたところでeven if
として○○ないnot even one
とてeven if; even though
とは(indicates word or phrase being defined)
とはいうもののhaving said that; be that as it may
つ○○つ(indicates two contrasting actions)
はおろかlet alone; not to mention
や否やthe moment that; as soon as
やしないnot (emphatic negative)
(よ)うが / (よ)うとno matter how/what
(よ)うが○○まいが / (よ)うと○○まいとwhether or not
(よ)うか○○まいかwhether or not
(よ)うものならif one chooses to
(よ)うにも○○ないeven if one tries to do something; it can't be done
ずともeven without doing